The end of the monarchy in Russia

The end of the monarchy in Russia

In Russia, the February Revolution of 1917 ended a dynasty with a 300-year-old tradition. Nicholas II, Tsar of Russia since 1894, was forced to abdicate after the outbreak of popular uprisings in Petrograd.  Crowned in 1894, Nicholas proved to be an inefficient and...
Latvian independence and civil war

Latvian independence and civil war

Latvian independence was proclaimed on November 18, 1918, but its real advent came only in 1920 after the cessation of hostilities between pro- and anti-Bolshevik forces and the withdrawal of all foreign armies from Latvian territory. The peace treaty signed with...