The failure of the emperor- “To my faithful Austrian peoples”

The idea of the dissolution of the Dual Monarchy was starting to gain serious ground from the middle of 1917 onwards. Its various peoples desired their independence more and more, not resonating with the policy put into practice by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Even on...

The forced requisitions operated in the occupied Romanian territory by the German military administration

Following the failure of the 1916 campaign, about two-thirds of Romania’s territory came under the occupation of the Central Powers. The occupation forces, especially the German ones, wanted to punish Romania for entering the war against them and, in particular, to...

The revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion against the Bolsheviks

Immediately after the Brest-Litovsk Treaty, the Czechoslovak Legion decided that the struggle for independence against the Austro-Hungarian Empire must continue and were set to go to France, half a world away. They avoided enemy capture and headed for the east of...

The 1916 visit to Cluj of the future emperor Charles I of Austria

Between October 28 and November 3, 1916, the city of Cluj received the visit of the last member of the Habsburg dynasty to become Emperor: Archduke Charles, the crown prince of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. At the time of the visit, Romania had already entered the war...

The attitude of the Romanian conservatives towards the German occupation regime

After the withdrawal of the Romanian Government to Iași (November 1916), there were numerous officials, representatives of the Romanian authorities, as well as the majority of the administrative staff, that remained in the territory occupied by the German troops. The...

Lenin’s April Theses, April 1917

In Russian the "Aprelskiye Tezisy", the April Theses formed a programme developed by Lenin during the 1917 Russian Revolution.  In these Lenin called for Soviet control of the state.  When published the theses contributed to the July Days rising and to the subsequent...

The Abdication of Nicholas II

Nicholas II signed his abdication on 15 March 1917 (2 March, Julian Calendar), at 3.05 pm. The document was countersigned by the Minister of the Imperial Court, and directed to the Chief of Staff. In the days of the great struggle against the foreign enemies, who for...

Treaty of Trianon, and Protocol

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, THE BRITISH EMPIRE, FRANCE, ITALY and JAPAN, These Powers being described in the present Treaty as the Principal Allied and Associated Powers,  BELGIUM, CHINA, CUBA, GREECE, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, POLAND, PORTUGAL, ROUMANIA, THE...