Russian Civil War – How Reds gained power over entire Russia!

Russian Civil War, (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I. Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Seeds Of Conflict Russia’s disastrous performance in...

Year 1919 – Pogroms from Ukraine and Poland

In 1919, nearly one hundred thousand Jews were murdered in Ukraine and Poland in pogroms. These ethnic riots dominated headlines and international affairs of their time as aid workers warned that six million Jews were in danger of complete extermination. Twenty years...

Hypothesis Z, criticized even by the Germans

Immediately after joining the Entente, the Romanian army quickly entered Transylvania according to a plan of operations called Hypothesis Z. This plan had many weaknesses and came to be criticized by the Germans themselves. On August 27, 1916, at nine o’clock in the...

Hypothesis Z, or when you can never start a plan too early

On August 27, 1916, Romania entered the First World War on the side of the Entente. The battle plan of the Romanian army, called Hypothesis Z, provided for an offensive with the majority of its forces in Transylvania and an active defence of the border with Bulgaria....

Romania’s battle plan with Bulgaria, overturned by the Thessaloniki Front

When it entered the First World War on August 27, 1916, Romania had a clearly defined military plan: three armies were to enter Transylvania and then advance towards the Hungarian Plain. In contrast, at the southern border with Bulgaria a single army had to initially...
Year 1919 – Pogroms from Ukraine and Poland

Year 1919 – Pogroms from Ukraine and Poland

In 1919, nearly one hundred thousand Jews were murdered in Ukraine and Poland in pogroms. These ethnic riots dominated headlines and international affairs of their time as aid workers warned that six million Jews were in danger of complete extermination. Twenty years...

The Treaty of Sèvres and it legacy

Treaty of Sèvres, (Aug. 10, 1920), post-World War I pact between the victorious Allied powers and representatives of the government of Ottoman Turkey. The treaty abolished the Ottoman Empire and obliged Turkey to renounce all rights over Arab Asia and North Africa....