Winston Churchill in 1919: “Of all the forms of tyranny in history, Bolshevik tyranny is the worst, most destructive and degrading”

Winston Churchill, who during the 1919 Paris Peace Conference was the British Secretary of State for War and Air, was one of the few Allied leaders who understood that Lenin and his Bolsheviks were a new phenomenon on the political scene and that, behind the Marxist...

Was Bolshevism a danger to Western countries?

The installation of the Bolsheviks at the helm of Russia in late 1917 would pose a real danger to Eastern European countries, but the virus continued to spread to other European countries. How much of a threat was Bolshevism to the victors of the First World War,...

Lloyd George, the Russian Bolsheviks and the Paris Peace Conference

British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, said during the Paris Peace Conference that Russia had become a land of the unknown: “Russia was a jungle where no one could say exactly what was happening”. The Great Powers did not understand what the situation in Russia...

The Allied Intervention at Archangel and Murmansk in 1918

In 1918 the United States entered the Russian Civil War on the side of the so-called “Whites,” anti-Bolshevik counterrevolutionaries. This essay explores the decision to intervene at Murmansk and then Archangel, the U.S. Navy’s role in the operations, and the ultimate...

The Allied military intervention in Bolshevik Russia

The signing of the armistice in Brest-Litovsk between the Russian Bolsheviks and the Central Powers forced the Allies to intervene militarily in Bolshevik Russia. Although they knew little about the Bolsheviks, the Allies feared that Germany would have access to...

Lenin’s April Theses, April 1917

In Russian the "Aprelskiye Tezisy", the April Theses formed a programme developed by Lenin during the 1917 Russian Revolution.  In these Lenin called for Soviet control of the state.  When published the theses contributed to the July Days rising and to the subsequent...