Russian Civil War – How Reds gained power over entire Russia!

Russian Civil War, (1918–20), conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I. Lenin against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Seeds Of Conflict Russia’s disastrous performance in...

Year 1919 – Pogroms from Ukraine and Poland

In 1919, nearly one hundred thousand Jews were murdered in Ukraine and Poland in pogroms. These ethnic riots dominated headlines and international affairs of their time as aid workers warned that six million Jews were in danger of complete extermination. Twenty years...

Hypothesis Z, criticized even by the Germans

Immediately after joining the Entente, the Romanian army quickly entered Transylvania according to a plan of operations called Hypothesis Z. This plan had many weaknesses and came to be criticized by the Germans themselves. On August 27, 1916, at nine o’clock in the...

Hypothesis Z, or when you can never start a plan too early

On August 27, 1916, Romania entered the First World War on the side of the Entente. The battle plan of the Romanian army, called Hypothesis Z, provided for an offensive with the majority of its forces in Transylvania and an active defence of the border with Bulgaria....

Romania’s battle plan with Bulgaria, overturned by the Thessaloniki Front

When it entered the First World War on August 27, 1916, Romania had a clearly defined military plan: three armies were to enter Transylvania and then advance towards the Hungarian Plain. In contrast, at the southern border with Bulgaria a single army had to initially...

10 Facts About the Battle of Jutland

The Battle of Jutland was the largest naval encounter of the First World War, pitting the British Grand Fleet against the German High Seas Fleet. It took place 31 May – 1 June, 1916, about 60 miles off the coast of Jutland (part of Denmark). In the years prior to war...

Lenin’s April Theses, April 1917

In Russian the "Aprelskiye Tezisy", the April Theses formed a programme developed by Lenin during the 1917 Russian Revolution.  In these Lenin called for Soviet control of the state.  When published the theses contributed to the July Days rising and to the subsequent...

The Abdication of Nicholas II

Nicholas II signed his abdication on 15 March 1917 (2 March, Julian Calendar), at 3.05 pm. The document was countersigned by the Minister of the Imperial Court, and directed to the Chief of Staff. In the days of the great struggle against the foreign enemies, who for...

The Controversial Versailles Treaty

The Versailles Treaty, signed on June 28, 1919 in the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles in Paris, was the peace settlement between Germany and the Allied Powers that officially ended World War I. After this moment all the others allies signed in Paris...

10 Facts About the Battle of Jutland

The Battle of Jutland was the largest naval encounter of the First World War, pitting the British Grand Fleet against the German High Seas Fleet. It took place 31 May – 1 June, 1916, about 60 miles off the coast of Jutland (part of Denmark). In the years prior to war...