How World War-I shaped India’s fight for freedom

The year was 1914. In the month of June, the first World War broke out. The Great War, as it was known, would go on to redefine the rest of twentieth century. The war would also rekindle a hope, a much-needed direction to the Congress nationalist movement that had...

The peace treaty of Trianon

The Trianon Peace Treaty was signed on June 4th, 1920 by France, Great Britain, Italy, the United States, Japan, Romania, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Czechoslovakia and nine other states, on the one hand, and Hungary, on the other hand, being...

The Great Powers and Hungary at the Paris Peace Conference

The Allies considered Hungary ready to sign the peace at the end of 1919. Thus, they invited the representatives of its government to Paris for final discussions before the conclusion of the peace treaty. The French greeted the Hungarians coldly but cordially, and...

Romania, the Republic of Councils in Hungary and the Great Powers

On March 21st, 1919, the Hungarian Bolsheviks, led by Béla Kun, seized power in Hungary. This was a clear warning sign for Romania, which was the first country severely affected by the Bolshevik threat. Following the Bessarabian Country Council decision in early 1918...

February 1919: The discussion of the union of Transylvania with Romania at the Paris Peace Conference

On February 1st, 1919, the Romanian Prime Minister Ionel Brătianu appeared for the second time before the Supreme Council, this time to support the union of Transylvania with Romania. Ionel Brătianu began his plea with a long exposition of the stages that led him to...

Lenin’s April Theses, April 1917

In Russian the "Aprelskiye Tezisy", the April Theses formed a programme developed by Lenin during the 1917 Russian Revolution.  In these Lenin called for Soviet control of the state.  When published the theses contributed to the July Days rising and to the subsequent...