Romania, having started the war as a neutral, entered on the side of the Allies in August 1916, led by Ion Bratianu, the Allies having promised support for the fullfilment of Romanian national unity.
Revolution in Russia in 1917, followed by the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty, brought about the end of German operations on the Eastern Front. With the withdrawal of her Russian allies on the Moldavian front peace was forced upon Romania, who realistically could not continue to fight alone against the Germans.
The resulting Treaty of Bucharest, between Romania and the Central Powers, was initially ratified by the following bodies upon the given dates:
- German Bundesrat (4 June 1918)
- Romanian Chamber (28 June 1918)
- German Reichstag (3 July 1918)
- Romanian Senate (4 July 1918)
The treaty never completed ratification in Romania and was denounced in October 1918 by the Romanian government, which then re-entered the war on the Allied side. With the Allied-German armistice of 11 November 1918 the treaty was declared void (along with the Russian Brest-Litovsk treaty).
Text of the Treaty
There follows the English translation of the German text as published the Deutscher Reichsanzeiger on 8 May, 1918.
The sidebar to the right lists the eight separate chapters of the treaty, divided into 31 Articles.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey on the one hand and Roumania on the other hand, animated by a desire to bring the state of war between them to an end and to re-establish the friendly relations of their peoples within the field of politics, law and economy, have decided to transform the preliminaries of peace signed in Buftea, 5 March, 1918, into a final peace treaty.
Accordingly, the plenipotentiaries of the Governments of the four mentioned Powers, namely, for the Imperial German Government, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Imperial Actual Privy Councillor, Herr von Kühlmann, the Imperial Actual Privy Councillor, Herr von Körner, the Director of the Foreign Office, the Imperial Actual Privy Councillor, Dr. Kriege, the Royal Prussian Major General, Herr Hell, Chief of the General Staff of the Supreme Command of the Mackensen Army Group, the Imperial Naval Captain, Herr Bene: for the Imperial and Royal Joint Austro-Hungarian Government, the Minister of the Imperial and Royal House and for Foreign Affairs, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty’s Privy Councillor, baron Burian von Rajecz; for the Royal Bulgarian Government, the Royal Ministerial President, Dr. Radoslavoff, the Royal Minister of Finance M. Tontscheff, the Royal Major General M. Zanttloff, the Deputy of the National Assembly M. Kostoff, Dr. Miletitsch, Professor in the University of Sofia; for the Imperial Ottoman Government, the Imperial Minister of Foreign Affairs Ahmed Nessimy Bey, the Imperial General of Cavalry Ahmed Izzet Pascha, the Under-Secretary in the Imperial Minister of Foreign Affairs Rechad Hikmet Bey; for the Royal Roumanian Government, the Royal Ministerial President, M. Marghiloman, the Royal Minister for Foreign Affairs, M. Arion, the Royal Minister Plenipotentiary, M. Papiniu, and the Royal Minister, in Retirement, M. Burghele, have met in Bucharest to continue the peace negotiations, and after submission of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions (see sidebar, right).
„Germany, Austria – Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey on the one hand and Roumania on the other hand, animated by a desire to bring the state of war between them to an end and to reestablish the friendly relations of their peoples within the field of politics, law and economy, have decided to transform the preliminaries of peace signed in Buftea, 5 March, 1918, into a final peace treaty. Accordingly, the plenipotentiaries of the Governments of the four mentioned Powers, namely, for the Imperial German Government, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Imperial Actual Privy Councillor, Herr von Kühlmann, the Imperial Actual Privy Councillor, Herr von Körner, the Director of the Foreign Office, the Imperial Actual Privy Councillor, Dr. Kriege, the Royal Prussian Major General, Herr Hell, Chief of the General Staff of the Supreme Command of the Mackensen Army Group, the Imperial Naval Captain, Herr Bene: for the Imperial and Royal Joint Austro-Hungarian Government, the Minister of the Imperial and Royal House and for Foreign Affairs, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty’s Privy Councillor, baron Burian von Rajecz; for the Royal Bulgarian Government, the Royal Ministerial President, Dr. Radoslavoff, the Royal Minister of Finance M. Tontscheff, the Royal Major General M. Zanttloff, the Deputy of the National Assembly M. Kostoff, Dr. Miletitsch, Professor in the University of Sofia; for the Imperial Ottoman Government, the Imperial Minister of Foreign Affairs Ahmed Nessimy Bey, the Imperial General of Cavalry Ahmed Izzet Pascha, the Under-Secretary in the Imperial Minister of Foreign Affairs Rechad Hikmet Bey; for the Royal Roumanian Government, the Royal Ministerial President, M. Marghiloman, the Royal Minister for Foreign Affairs, M. Arion, the Royal Minister Plenipotentiary, M. Papiniu, and the Royal Minister, in Retirement, M. Burghele, have met in Bucharest to continue the peace negotiations, and after submission of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following provisions:
REESTABLISHMENT OF PEACE AND AMITY.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey on the one hand and Roumania on the other hand, declare, that the state of war between them is ended. The contracting parties are resolved to live henceforth with one another in peace and amity.
Immediately after the ratification of the peace treaty, the diplomatic and consular relations will be resumed between the contracting parties. As regards the admission of consuls of both parties, further agreements are reserved.
DEMOBILIZATION OF THE ROUMANIAN FIGHTING FORCES.
After the signature of the peace treaty and on the basis of the provisions contained in Articles IV to VII, the demobilization of the Roumanian army, now under way, will be carried out immediately.
The general military bureaus of the army, the higher commanding authorities and military institutions will be maintained as provided for in the last peace budget. Divisions 11 to 15 continue their demobilization as stipulated in the treaty of Focsani of March, 1918. Of the Roumanian divisions Nos. 1 to 10, the 2 divisions serving in Bessarabia remain on a war footing, together with the chasseur battalions left over from the disbanded chasseur divisions, as well as the 2 cavalry divisions of the Roumanian army, until, as a result of military operations carried on in Ukrainia by the Allied Powers, there is no longer any danger for the frontiers of Roumania. The remaining 8 divisions remain in Moldavia with maintenance of their staffs and commands, on a reduced peace footing. They will comprise 4 infantry regiments of 3 battalions each, 2 cavalry regiments of 4 squadrons each, 2 field artillery regiments of 7 batteries each, 1 battalion of pioneers and the necessary technical troops and convoys, the number of which is to be fixed in a subsequent agreement; the total force of these 8 infantry divisions shall not exceed 20,000 men, that of the cavalry shall not exceed 3,200 men and that of the total artillery of the Roumanian army, apart from the divisions that remain mobilized shall not exceed 9,000 men. The divisions that remain mobilized in Bessarabia shall, in case of demobilization, be decreased to the peace footing on the basis of the 8 divisions mentioned in sentence 4. All other Roumanian troops which did not exist in peace time, will be disbanded. The active period of service remains the same as in peace time and reservists, inclusive of the forces of the Calarasch regiments, will not be called to the colors until after the conclusion of the general peace.
Ordnance, machine guns, hand arms, horses, wagons and munitions made available in consequence of the reduction or disbanding of the Roumanian troops will be transferred, until the conclusion of the general peace, under the high command of the allied fighting forces within the occupied Roumanian territories and to be taken care of by it, and under the high supervision of the supreme command they will be watched over and administered by Roumanian depot troops. Ammunition to be left with the Roumanian army in Moldavia is limited to 250 cartridges for each musket, to 2500 cartridges for each machine gun and to 150 shots for each piece of ordnance. The Roumanian army is entitled, in agreement with the supreme command of the allied fighting forces, to exchange useless material in the depots of occupied regions and to demand from the munition depots replacement of munition used up. The divisions which remain mobilized in Bessarabia shall retain the amount of ammunition regularly allowed in the state of war.
Until the time of the evacuation of the occupied Roumanian territories the demobilized Roumanian troops shall remain in Moldavia. Exception hereto is made with regard to forces mentioned under Article V, sentence 1, necessary for the preservation of the arms and other material deposited within these territories. The demobilized troops and reserve officers may return within the occupied territories. The officers of the active army and others formerly in active service must, in order to return to these territories, secure the permission of the supreme command of the allied fighting forces.
An officer of the general staff of the allied Powers, with staff, is appointed as liaison officer to the Roumanian chief commander in Moldavia, and in the occupied Roumanian territories, a Roumanian officer of the general staff, with staff, is appointed as liaison officer to the supreme command of the allied fighting forces.
The Roumanian fluvial and maritime forces shall, until conditions in Bessarabia have been cleared up, remain intact as regards their forces and equipments, in so far as such forces are not to be restricted in accordance with Article IX. Subsequently these fighting forces are to be restored to their usual peace footing. Excepted from these are the fluvial forces necessary to police the river and the naval forces that may be utilizable in the Black Sea for the protection of commercial navigation and the reestablishment of navigable lanes free from mines. Immediately after the signature of the peace treaty, these fluvial forces, on the basis of a special agreement, will be put at the disposal of the agencies charged with the river police. The naval technical Commission of the Black Sea is given the right to dispose of the maritime forces; a Roumanian naval officer is to be appointed to this Commission in order to establish the liaison.
All the military and naval personnel who in peace time were employed in the ports and in navigation shall, at the time of the demobilization, be released first, in order that they may find employment in their former activity.
CESSIONS OF TERRITORY.
As regards the Dobrudja which according to No. 1 of the peace preliminaries is to be ceded by Roumania, the following provisions are adopted.
a. Roumania cedes to Bulgaria the Bulgarian territory which had fallen to it as a result of the peace treaty of Bucharest of 1913 with a rectification of the frontier in favor of Bulgaria so that the new Bulgarian frontier in the Dobrudja, traced in red ink upon the map annexed to this treaty, will henceforth have the following course: the new frontier of Bulgaria in the Dobrudja begins at a point situated west of the village of Cochirleni on the Danube, in which operation the lake lying to the south of the village of Cochirleni and the brook connecting the said lake with the Danube are allotted to Bulgaria. It runs through the middle of the lake lying to the south of the village of Cochirleni and through the middle of the pond situated to the north of the Ivrinez Mic, follows the thalweg of the Pestera valley, continues northward of the northern edge of the village Daidia, which goes to Bulgaria, cuts the height between the villages Saidia and Mircea Voda, leads northward of. the northern edge of the village Mircea Voda which goes to Bulgaria, then follows the ridge of the height which rises to the east of the village of Mircea Voda, cuts hill 127 (Idris Kiruos), continues in an easterly direction to the wall of Trajan, which it reaches about 2½ kilometers to the north of point 129, then follows the wall of Trajan to a point situated south of the village Osmancea, and then the thalweg of the valley connecting the villages of Osmancea and Omurcea, runs north of the northern edge of the village Omurcea, which goes to Bulgaria, then in an eastward direction to hill 6 (Pipiliga Juk), cuts this hill and continues in its easterly direction, passing through Orta Tabia and then 1 kilometer to the north of the northern edge of the village Agigea which goes to Bulgaria crosses the highway Constanza-Techirghiol, follows in a southeasterlv direction into the lake located east of the village Agigea, which it crosses in such manner that it issues into the middle of the eastern shore from where it enters into the Black Sea. The map referred to in the beginning forms an essential part of the peace treaty. A Commission composed of representatives of the Allied Powers shall, immediately after the signing of the peace treaty, determine and demarcate on the spot the new frontier line of the Dobrudja. The Danube frontier between the territories ceded to Bulgaria and Roumania follows the thalweg of the river. Immediately after the signing of the peace treaty, more detailed provisions will be entered into between the two Powers with regard to the determination of the thalweg; the delimitation described in paragraph b will be made in the autumn of 1918 at low-water mark.
b. Roumania cedes to the Allied Powers the part of the Dobrudja situated to the north of the new frontier line described in paragraph a, down to the Danube and exactly between the forking of the river and the Black Sea even to St. George’s Arm. The Danube frontier between the territories ceded to the Allied Powers and Roumania will follow the thalweg of the stream. The details regarding the determination of the thalweg must be agreed upon between the interested Powers immediately after the signing of the peace treaty; the delimitation will take place in the autumn of 1918 at low-water mark. The Allied Powers will see to it that Roumania obtains a guaranteed commercial road to the Black Sea by way of Cernavoda and Constanza.
Roumania agrees that her frontier be given a rectification in favor of Austria-Hungary in such manner that the new frontier traced in red ink upon the map annexed to the treaty shall henceforth have the following course: the new frontier begins at the railway cutting to the west of Turn-Severin, south of Dudasu. Thence it passes at a distance of 400 meters to the west of the last houses situated at the western end of Dudasu, and by the western edge of the locality of Seretu across the J of the inscription on the map of the brook Jidoscita, across the J of the inscription of the locality Jidoscita, across hill 682 D. Matoret (the summit goes to Hungary), then along the highway of the said hill in the direction of Ciresiu, the highway going to Hungary, then by the western edge of Ciresiu, along the country road across the N of the inscription of the locality Jupanesci, reaches the E of the inscription Gornenti, passing through the F of the inscription Costesc, to hill 1333 Mt. Sec (the summit goes to Hungary) and from there in a straight northerly direction to the present frontier between Roumania and Hungary which remains intact up to the point where the brook Craiova enters into the Cserna. From the mentioned point where the brook Craiova enters into the Cserna, the Cserna itself forms the new frontier up to point A of the inscription Rinceunisora, then the frontier bends to the east and goes across the inscription D. Milano, passes the inscription D. Negoea to the south, crosses inscription D. Seniuleului in a direct easterly direction to the road leading from the Vulcan gorge to the south, which it cuts 600 meters to the south of Buliga, then to the point of intersection of the Ztilv River and the road to the south of the inscription Lainici. It proceeds directly eastward to the brook Sadu, then along the brook northeast to its source (1 kilometer east of the U of the inscription Stana Prislopu) then directlv northward to the present frontier at point 2529 Vrf. Mandrei, and along the old frontier to 400 meters southwest of V of the inscription Vrf. Ciobavul. From this point the frontier passes in a direct easterly line by the south edge of Bucolie, south of the inscription Vrf Repede, south of the inscription Ciungetu and of the inscription Par. Latorita. It then follows 400 meters south of the hill 1632 Piscu Moldovisulai in an easterly direction to the confluence of the brook 1 kilometer southwest of R of the inscription Racovita, 2 kilometers south of the place Bolioara, passes the northern edge of Titesti to hill 1248 Zanoaga (the summit going to Hungary), across the U of the inscnption Stana Cioricu, 1 kilometer south of hill 1862 Comarnicul, across the narrow gauge railway 3 kilometers southwest of hill 2000 Mt. Lipitoarea then in an easterly direction across hills 1961,1932, 1576, 1772, 1607, 2338 M.Batrana, 2237, trigonometric point 2379, M. Papusa, 1785, 1411, 1264, 1265, 1074 (all these summits going to Hungary), cuts the highway Campolung-Brasso at the bridge 1 kilometer southeast of point 1074, then proceeds across point 1265 (bridge and summit both going to Hungary) and reaches the present frontier in an almost due easterly direction midway between the inscription Vrf. Santu Ilie and Vrf. Sigluia at hill 1880.
The present frontier up to hill 1909 remains intact; the new frontier then leads from that hill across the second C of the inscription Schitu Pestera Decebal, across the U of inscription Caraimanu, across the B of inscription V. Cerbulni, along the northern edge of Azuga across the second A of inscription Azuga, across hill 1505 which is left to Roumania, across the V of inscription. of Vrf. Cajacu, then bending to the southeast 1 kilometer south of inscription Mt. Prislop across hill 1531 (which goes to Hungary), across hill 1128, 873, 1235, l540 (all of which go to Hungary), 1 kilometer south of point 1771 Mt. Grohitis hill 1450 (all these points going to Hungary), then 700 meters south of point 871 of the place named Teleajenul, across point 961 (which point goes to Hungary), 1 kilometer south of point 1340 ( across V of inscription Tartar Havas P.), across points 975, 1486, 1115 (all three points going to Hungary), then onward in a northeasterly direction cutting the highway in the valley of the Podza, 2 kilometers northwest of G of inscription Gura Sirtulni, then across points 1183, 1363, 600 meters south of point 1338, then northeast to within 1 kilometer north of point 789, where it joins the present frontier between Hungary and Roumania. The ancient frontier remains intact up to the point 2½ kilometers southwest of Popii, then passes in northeasterly direction up to the point 1 kilometer southeast of point 1530, then makes here a sharp turn to the northwest east of point 1530, to the east of points 1521, 1587 and bending to the northeast around point 1490 Mt. Condratu, east of point 950, crossing the narrow gauge railway 4 kilometers west of Lepsa, east of point 1374 Mt. Sboina Neagra, east of point 1014 Mt. Resboiului and crossing the small railway 2 kilometers east of point 508, 1 kilometer east of trigonometric point 1167 Mt. Maguis Casinului, then across point 843, 1 kilometer east of point 737, across point 704, 716, S of inscription Hirsa, the southwest shore of Harja, military post 962, military post 3 kilometers northwest thereof (all aforementioned points going to Hungary). then bending northward across point 1050 Vrf.
Cheschtului (which point goes to Hungary), thence sharp to northwest, north of point 1071 Mt. Cleja along the slope north of point 1108 east of the trigonometric point 1653 Mt. Nemira, passing east of point 1370, crossing the small railway 3 kilometers west of point 479 Poiana Uzului, across trigonometric point 1342 (summit goes to Hungary), passing 1800 meters east of point 682, crossing the railway of the Trotus valley at P of inscription Preluci, follows directly to the east of U of inscription Agasu, across point 1275, 1613 (which points go to Hungary), east of trigonometric point Csülemer 1651, east of trigonometric point Tarhavas 1662, across M of inscription Schimba Garda, east of point 1573, passing east of point 1463 Mt. Mairus, 762 directly west of point 1211, crossing the small railway in the Bicazului valley at its eastern terminal of Tasca, east of point 1245, west of point 932, rounding trigonometric point 1904 Teca (2 kilometers northeast of the highest point) across S of inscription Schitul Ducau, west of point 1080, and crossing the highway in the Bistricioara valley, across G of inscription Grintiesiul, then eastward across point 1145 Frasin, 1021, across C of inscription Farcasa, east of trigonometric point 1086, point 1150, trigonometric point 1534, Monte Bivol, point 1276, points 1208, 975, 1010, 882, from here bending to the northeast to 2 kilometers south of Paiseni across the N of inscription Paiseni, O of inscription Moldava, L of inscription Kornoluncze, across the eastern edge of the place Rotopanesti and the southern edge of Mihaesti, then hill 393 near A of Mihaesti, then the old frontier of Austria in the direction of Roumania to 2 kilometers southeast of the trigonometric point 503 La Zara, then bending northeast across point 305, 281 on the Sereth, the eastern edge of Talpa, the eastern edge of Colinesti, point 396, 402, ½ kilometer to the east of Dersca, across point 189, 198, 332, 304, Ziehbrunnen 1 kilometer southwest of point 311, the eastern edge of Baranca, the eastern edge of Pilipauti, point 251, to Pruth, 1 kilometer to the east of Lunca.
The map referred to in the beginning forms an essential part of the peace treaty. Two mixed Commissions composed of an equal number of representatives of the interested Powers shall immediately after the ratification of the peace treaty determine and demarcate on the spot the new frontier line.
State properties within the occupied Roumanian territories pass, without indemnification and without incumbrances, but by safeguarding the private rights within these regions, to the State acquiring them. From the fact that these territories formerly belonged to Roumania, there shall, nevertheless, devolve no obligation of any nature whatever either upon Roumania or upon the-States becoming the owners thereof.
Furthermore, the States acquiring the territories surrendered, will, among other things, enter with Roumania into agreements concerning the following points:
- Concerning the nationality of the hitherto Roumanian inhabitants of these territories in which the latter must in every case be granted a right of option and emigration;
- concerning the apportionment of the properties of. the communal districts severed through the new frontiers;
- concerning the attribution of the archives, the acts of the judicial and administrative authorities, the records of the courts and the administration as well as the personal civil register;
- concerning the management of the new frontiers;
- concerning the effect of the territorial change’s upon the diocesan districts;
- concerning the effect of the territorial changes upon the political treaties.
After the signature of the peace treaty, Roumania will release, upon their demand, the officers and military forces originating from the territories surrendered, and permit them to return to their homeland.
The contracting parties mutually renounce indemnification for their war expenses, that is to say, the expenses of the State for the conduct of the war. Special agreements. regarding the regulation of war damages are reserved.
EVACUATION OF THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES.
The Roumanian territories occupied by the military forces of the Allied Powers will be evacuated at a time to be determined later under the reservation of the provisions of the Third Chapter relative to cessions of territory. During the time of occupation, the forces of the occupying army will not exceed 6 divisions, not including the detachments used in the field of economic activities.
Up to the time of the ratification of the peace treaty the present administration of occupation will continue with the authority heretofore exercised. But the Roumanian Government, immediately after the signature of the peace treaty, may proceed with the appointment and dismissal of the official personnel as it may deem proper.
After the ratification of the peace treaty, the civil administration of the occupied territories will again be transferred to the Roumanian authorities on the basis of Articles XVII to XXIII.
In conformity with the desire of the Roumanian Government, and until after the evacuation of the occupied territories, a civilian officer of the administration of occupation will be designated to each Roumanian ministry in order to facilitate, as much as possible, the transfer of the civilian administration to the Roumanian authorities. Furthermore. the Roumanian authorities will have to conform to the regulations which the commanders of the army of occupation may think it necessary to adopt in the interest of public security within the occupied territories, as well as in the interest of the security of the maintenance and distribution of their troops. The means of communication, especially the railways, the postal arid telegraph service will, until further order, remain under the military administration; they will be placed at the disposal of the Roumanian authorities and people, on the basis of agreements to be reached upon this matter. As regards the cooperation of the high command m the regulation of financial movements and monetary operations, a special agreement is reserved, in particular with regard to the business operations of the Roumanian National Bank and the central office of the people’s banks.
Jurisdiction within the occupied districts, under reservation of the provisions contained in §§ 2 and 3, will be completely taken over again by the Roumanian Courts. The Allied Powers retain full jurisdiction over persons belonging to the army of occupation, both in penal and civil affairs, as well as police authority over these persons. Punishable acts committed against the army of occupation will be decided by its military jurisdiction; the same applies to infractions against ordinances of the administration of occupation, in so far as according to Article XXII, §1, these ordinances still remain provisionally in force. Further, affairs that have been laid before the tribunals instituted by the administration of occupation before the ratification of the peace treaty, will be adjudicated by these tribunals.
The high command of the army of occupation, in agreement with the Roumanian Government, will make the necessary arrangements to regulate the relations between the occupied territories and territories not occupied. Accordingly, among other things, repatriation into the occupied territories will take place in the proportion in which the Roumanian Government will provide for the maintenance of persons returning by means of a corresponding importation of the necessaries of life from Moldavia or from Bessarabia.
After the ratification of the peace treaty, the army of occupation will no longer make requisitions, either in money or products of any kind, under the reservation of the provisions of paragraph 2. The high command of the army of occupation retains the right of requisitioning grains, podded grains, fodder, wool, cattle and meats from the harvests of the year 1918, further, lumber as well as mineral oil and mineral oil products, as well as the right to take the necessary measures for the securing, transforming, transporting and distributing of these products. The high command will for this purpose develop an orderly plan for securing these articles as well as give satisfaction to the Roumanian domestic needs; to this end, more detailed agreements to be entered into between the high command and the Roumanian Government are reserved. As for; the rest, the Roumanian Government will have to meet the requests of the high command with regard to requisitions to be made for the needs of the army of occupation, as well as with regard to requisitions of other articles which Roumania will have to supply according to other agreements already concluded.
From the date of the ratification of the peace treaty the maintenance of the army of occupation, inclusive of requisitions made to that end, is at the expense of Roumania. Objects requisitioned for other purposes than the needs of the army of occupation will be paid for by the Allied Powers, beginning with the date of the ratification of the peace treaty.
A special agreement will be entered into to settle the details of the transfer of the civil administration foreseen in Article XVI as well as the abrogation of the ordinances issued by the administration of occupation. No claim for damages may be submitted with regard to these ordinances; and the rights acquired by third parties as a result of these ordinances are left intact. The administrators and liquidators appointed by order of the administration of occupation may be prosecuted under the civil or penal law for violation of their duties only with the approval of the high command of the army of occupation; in the exercise of their duties, they may not either be penalized or prejudiced.
Expenses incurred by the Allied Powers within the occupied territories for public works, inclusive of industrial enterprizes, will be refunded to these Powers at the time of the transfer of the territories. Up to the time of the evacuation of occupied territories, the industrial enterprizes mentioned in paragraph 1 will remain under the military administration. In the utilization of their products consideration must be had to meet the Roumanian domestic needs.
REGULATION OF, NAVIGATION ON THE DANUBE.
With Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, Roumania will conclude a new navigation agreement with regard to the Danube which will settle the legal situation on the Danube from the point where it becomes navigable, by taking into account the stipulations following under a to d and on condition that the provisions under b are equally applicable to all the participants in the Danube agreement. Negotiations anent the new Danube agreement shall begin at Munich, as soon as possible after the ratification of the peace treaty.
a. For the course of the river below Braila, inclusive of this harbor, the European Danube Commission will be retained as a permanent institution with its powers, privileges and obligations under the name of “Commission on the Mouth of the Danube”:
1. The Commission will henceforth consist only of delegates from the States situated on the Danube or on the European shore of the Black Sea.
2. From Braila downward, the competence of the Commission extends to all branches and mouths of the Danube and to the parts contiguous to the Black Sea; the rules issued by the Corn-mission with regard to the Sulina Arm shall also be applied in like manner to the branches or sub-branches for which hitherto the Commission was not, or was not exclusively competent.
b. Roumania guarantees to the ships of the other contracting parties free circulation on the Roumanian part of the Danube, inclusive of the harbors connected therewith. Neither on ships and rafts of the contracting parties nor on their cargoes. will Roumania levy any dues based upon the fact that they navigate on the river. Neither will Roumania levy in future on the river any other dues or taxes than those admitted in virtue of the new convention of navigation on the Danube.
c. The Roumanian tax of ½ per cent upon the value of merchandise imported or exported through the harbours of the country, will be abrogated after the going into force of the new convention of navigation on the Danube, and as soon as Roumania shall have determined the taxes, according to the new convention, for the use of public institutions serving for the development of shipping traffic and the movement of merchandise. This tax will be levied at all events, at the latest, five years after the ratification of the present treaty of peace. Merchandise and rafts transported in Roumania on the Danube will not be subject to a traffic tax based on the fact that they are being thus transported.
d. The section of the cataracts and of the Iron Gates to which relate the provisions of Article VI of the Treaty of London of 13 March, 1871, of Article LVII of the Berlin Treaty of 13 July, 1878, comprises the stretch of the river from Moldova to Turn-Severin, over the entire width of the river, from one shore to the other shore, inclusive of all the branches of the river and the islands situated between them.
Accordingly, the obligations relative to the maintenance of navigability over the stretch of the cataracts and the Iron Gates which had been assumed by Austria-Hungary on the basis of stipulations mentioned in paragraph 1 and which Hungary had been charged to carry out, will henceforth apply, even as the special rights accruing therefrom to Hungary. to that part of the Danube explicitly specified under paragraph 1. The border States of this part of the river will afford Hungary all facilities she might ask for in the interest of the works which she has to carry out there.
Until the meeting of the Commission on the Mouth of the Danube, Roumania will administer in orderly fashion and preserve from any damage the properties of the European Commission of the Danube which it has in custody. Immediately after, the signing of the peace treaty, a Commission composed of at least two representatives of each of the contracting parties, will survey the condition of the material in the care of Roumania. A special agreement will be entered into anent the obligation of Roumania for the immediate tentative return of this material.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Turkey, and Roumania have the right to keep war-ships on the Danube. These war-ships may navigate down the stream as far as the sea and up the river as far as the extreme boundary of their own territories; excepting in case of force majeure, they may, however, enter into communication with or anchor at the shore of another State, only with the approval of such State to be secured through the channels of diplomacy. Each of the Powers represented in the Commission on the Mouth of the Danube has the right to keep two light war-ships, as station ships,. at the mouths of the Danube. Such war-ships, without any special authorization, may ascend the Danube as far as Braila. The war-ships mentioned in paragraphs 1 and 2 are entitled, within the harbors and waters of the Danube, to all the privileges and advantages of war-ships..
EQUALITY OF RELIGIONS IN ROUMANIA.
Equal freedom is granted in Roumania to the Roman Catholic, to the United Greek, to the Bulgarian Orthodox, to the Protestant, to the Musselman, and to the Jewish faiths, and each shall receive the same juridical and official protection as that accorded the Roumanian Orthodox faith. Especially, they shall have the right to establish parishes or communities of faith, as well as schools which are to be regarded as private schools and may not be interfered with except in the case of a violation of the national security or of public order. In all private and public schools, the pupils may not be compelled to attend religious instruction unless it is given by an authorized teacher of their faith.
The difference in religious faith must not exercise in Roumania any influence over the status of the inhabitants from the viewpoint of their rights, especially as regards their political and civil rights. The principle expressed in paragraph 1 will likewise be applicable in so far as concerns
the naturalization of the population of Roumania without nationality, inclusive of the Jews, hitherto regarded as aliens. To that end there will be decreed in Roumania, up to the time of the ratification of the peace treaty, a law according to which all persons without nationality who have taken part in the war, either in the active military service, or in the auxiliary service, or who are born in the country and are settled there and whose parents were there born, shall be regarded forthwith as Roumanian nationals with all the rights as such, and may have themselves registered as such in the courts the acquisition of Roumanian nationality will likewise extend to the married women, the widows and minor children.
The economic relations between the Allied Powers and Roumania will be regulated in special treaties which form an essential part of the peace treaty, and, in so far as it is not therein stipulated to the contrary, will enter into force simultaneously with the latter. The same applies to the reestablishment of public and private legal relations, the settlement of military and civil damages, the exchange of war prisoners and interned civilians, the decree of amnesties as well as the treatment of river boats and other means of traffic that have come into the power of the opponent.
With regard to the interpretation of this treaty, the German text and the Roumanian text will
be authoritative in the relations between Germany and Roumania; the German text, the Hungarian text and the Roumanian text with regard to the relations between Austria~Hungary and Roumania; the Bulgarian text and the Roumanian text in the relations between Bulgaria and Roumania, and the Turkish text and the Roumanian text in the relations between Turkey and Roumania.
This peace treaty shall be ratified and ratifications exchanged in Vienna as soon as possible. In so far as it is not otherwise stated herein, the peace treaty goes into force at the time of its ratification.
In faith whereof the Plenipotentiaries have signed this peace treaty and affixed their official seals to it.
Done in quintuple original in Bucharest, 7 May, 1918.